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Basic principles of telescopes

A telescope is a visual optical instrument used to observe distant objects. It can magnify the small opening angle of distant objects at a certain magnification, so that it has a larger opening angle in the image space, making it impossible to see clearly or clearly with the naked eye. The distinguished object becomes clear and distinguishable. Therefore, the telescope is an indispensable tool in astronomy and ground observation. It is an optical system that keeps the incident parallel light beams emitted in parallel through the objective lens and the eyepiece. According to the principle of the telescope, it is generally divided into three types. An instrument that collects electromagnetic waves to observe the electromagnetic radiation of distant objects. It is called a radio telescope. In daily life, telescopes mainly refer to optical telescopes. However, in modern astronomy, astronomical telescopes include radio telescopes, infrared telescopes, and X-rays. And gamma-ray telescope. The concept of astronomical telescopes has been further extended to the fields of gravitational waves, cosmic rays, and dark matter.

The optical telescope in daily life is also called a “telescope”. It mainly includes amateur astronomical telescopes, theater telescopes, and military binoculars.

Commonly used binoculars also need to add a prism system for the purpose of reducing the volume and flipping the inverted image. The prism system can be divided into a roof prism system (Roof Prism) (that is, Schmidt-Bei Han roof prism system) and Paul prism system (Porro Prism) (also known as Porro Prism system), the principles and applications of the two systems are similar.

Small handheld telescopes for personal use should not use too large magnification, generally, 3-12 times is appropriate, when the magnification is too large, the imaging sharpness will deteriorate, and the jitter will be serious. Telescopes with more than 12 times generally use tripods, etc. To be fixed.

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